Renewable energy resources are distributed throughout the earth relatively evenly. There are several areas of alternative energy, which differ in the way of energy and mind converts the alternative source. The main directions of the renewable alternative energy: solar, geothermal, wind and hydro energy alternative, using waterfalls, waves and tides as a source of energy. Also, there are areas such as hydrogen and bioenergy.
Solar energy is based on the use of sunlight to produce any energy. Source for solar plants is endless, and the use of solar energy for life support does not pollute the environment. The downside of using this energy is the high cost structures. Leaders in the use of solar energy for life support are Germany, Spain and Japan. Energy use of air masses is the basis of wind power. This method of energy is one of the cheapest and environmentally friendly. One can cite the example of Denmark, where there are about four thousand wind turbines, which produce about 20% of all electricity. Production of electricity by wind power is much cheaper than nuclear, thermal and coal power plants. Wind power is also considerably developed in Portugal (16%), Ireland (14%) and Spain (13%).
Geothermal energy is based on the use of heat the earth's crust as a source of alternative energy. Low-potential energy of the Earth is used by heat pumps. The source of this energy is surface ground temperature is relatively low and constant throughout the year. Therefore, this power is available in any territory. The use of low potential energy of the earth is most common in the U.S.. And in Europe, the organization heating and cooling with low potential energy of the Earth's most common in Sweden, Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The use of energy waves - the basis of wave power stations. The main bodies of data stations are made as floats, blades, or a pendulum, which under the action of the waves make the mechanical vibrations. A special power generators this mechanical energy into electrical energy is recovered. The downside of the wave energy is now high the cost, but experts predict that soon it may be a significant reduction. Given that today the total power production from renewable sources is about 1% of total electricity generation, and the amount of fossil fuel is constantly decreasing, the prospects for growth in the use of alternative energy in the life support is very high. It is also related to the fact that the use of alternative energy sources will not be the burden on the environment and has a low cost of operation. According to the European Commission, about the age of twenty in Europe in the industry of alternative energy can be created about 2.8 million jobs, and the contribution to GDP of the industry will be about 1.1%.
Conversion of solar energy into electrical and thermal energy is due to the solar panels and collectors. Generating electricity by solar panels will not be harmful impact on the environment, and the equipment solar power without costly maintenance. Solar cell is a source of electric current, which is generated under the influence of solar radiation on the photovoltaic cells. The structure of solar cells are not moving parts, so they are highly reliable. In addition to this, during a virtually unlimited service life of solar cells are absent any major damage, and their maintenance is to remove the dust from the mirror cell efficiency. Solar panels have a low efficiency, but due to modular design can be constructed at different voltage settings, and any power, and the application of advanced battery allows the storage of electricity produced, which is then consumed in the night or in inclement weather.